United Nations Beginnings

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The United Nations is an association of nations. At present, the UN has 193 member "States".   It was chartered in 1945 in San Francisco, Ca.  The headquarters of the UN is in New York City, built on land donated by the Rockefellers.  It is the successor organization to the failed League of Nations which was created by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.

From the beginning of this country's history, there have been two factions - Internationalists and Nationalists. The Nationalists were our Founders. The Internationalists were the Tories - enemies of independence. Cordell Hull, Secretary of State from 1933-1944, was one such Internationalist. For his entire career in public life, he worked to subvert the sovereignty and independence of the United States. From the 1913 Federal Reserve Act1, the lowering of tariffs on imports and replacement revenue in the form of income taxes on the American people to the Dumbarton Oaks conferences where he led the effort to write the draft charter for the United Nations2, Cordell Hull betrayed his country and fellow Americans.

In 1945 Cordell Hull was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace as "The Father of the United Nations"3.


Dumbarton Oaks History4

"In the late summer and early fall of 1944, at the height of the Second World War, a series of important diplomatic meetings took place at Dumbarton Oaks. Their outcome was the United Nations charter that was adopted in San Francisco in 1945. At these meetings, officially known as the Washington Conversations on International Organization, Dumbarton Oaks, delegations from China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States deliberated over proposals for the establishment of an organization to maintain peace and security in the world. Among the representatives were Soviet Ambassador to the United States, Andrei Gromyko (1909–1989); US Secretary of State Cordell Hull (1871–1955); Wellington Koo (1887–1985), Chinese Ambassador to the United Kingdom; and Edward Wood (the Earl of Halifax) (1872–1959), British Ambassador to the United States, each of whom chaired his respective delegation." 









In February of 1945, a conference of the allies was held in Yalta.  It was officially called the Crimea Conference but the agreement produced is called the Yalta Agreement.

It was at this conference that the three world powers officially agreed to create the United Nations Association. 

Winston Churchill  ~  Franklin Delano Roosevelt  ~  Joseph Stalin
Source: Wikipedia:  Yalta Summit



Yalta Agreement5


The Crimea Conference of the heads of the Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which took place from Feb. 4 to 11, came to the following conclusions:


It was decided:

1. That a United Nations conference on the proposed world organization should be summoned for Wednesday, 25 April, 1945, and should be held in the United States of America.

2. The nations to be invited to this conference should be:

(a) the United Nations as they existed on 8 Feb., 1945; and

(b) Such of the Associated Nations as have declared war on the common enemy by 1 March, 1945. (For this purpose, by the term "Associated Nations" was meant the eight Associated Nations and Turkey.) When the conference on world organization is held, the delegates of the United Kingdom and United State of America will support a proposal to admit to original membership two Soviet Socialist Republics, i.e., the Ukraine and White Russia.

3. That the United States Government, on behalf of the three powers, should consult the Government of China and the French Provisional Government in regard to decisions taken at the present conference concerning the proposed world organization.

4. That the text of the invitation to be issued to all the nations which would take part in the United Nations conference should be as follows:

"The Government of the United States of America, on behalf of itself and of the Governments of the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics and the Republic of China and of the Provisional Government of the French Republic invite the Government of -------- to send representatives to a conference to be held on 25 April, 1945, or soon thereafter , at San Francisco, in the United States of America, to prepare a charter for a general international organization for the maintenance of international peace and security.

"The above-named Governments suggest that the conference consider as affording a basis for such a Charter the proposals for the establishment of a general international organization which were made public last October as a result of the Dumbarton Oaks conference and which have now been supplemented by the following provisions for Section C of Chapter VI:



The following declaration has been approved:

The Premier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the President of the United States of America have consulted with each other in the common interests of the people of their countries and those of liberated Europe. They jointly declare their mutual agreement to concert during the temporary period of instability in liberated Europe the policies of their three Governments in assisting the peoples liberated from the domination of Nazi Germany and the peoples of the former Axis satellite states of Europe to solve by democratic means their pressing political and economic problems.

The establishment of order in Europe and the rebuilding of national economic life must be achieved by processes which will enable the liberated peoples to destroy the last vestiges of nazism and fascism and to create democratic institutions of their own choice. This is a principle of the Atlantic Charter - the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live - the restoration of sovereign rights and self-government to those peoples who have been forcibly deprived to them by the aggressor nations.

To foster the conditions in which the liberated people may exercise these rights, the three governments will jointly assist the people in any European liberated state or former Axis state in Europe where, in their judgment conditions require,

(a) to establish conditions of internal peace;
(b) to carry out emergency relief measures for the relief of distressed peoples;
(c) to form interim governmental authorities broadly representative of all democratic elements in the population and pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections of Governments responsive to the will of the people; and
(d) to facilitate where necessary the holding of such elections.

The three Governments will consult the other United Nations and provisional authorities or other Governments in Europe when matters of direct interest to them are under consideration.

When, in the opinion of the three Governments, conditions in any European liberated state or former Axis satellite in Europe make such action necessary, they will immediately consult together on the measure necessary to discharge the joint responsibilities set forth in this declaration.

By this declaration we reaffirm our faith in the principles of the Atlantic Charter, our pledge in the Declaration by the United Nations and our determination to build in cooperation with other peace-loving nations world order, under law, dedicated to peace, security, freedom and general well-being of all mankind...

- MORE -


The international conference to create the United Nations was held in San Francisco beginning on April 25, 1945 with an opening speech by President Harry Truman.  Excerpts from Truman's speech:  

This Conference will devote its energies and its labors exclusively to the single problem of setting up the essential organization to keep the peace. You are to write the fundamental charter.

Our sole objective, at this decisive gathering, is to create the structure. We must provide the machinery which will make future peace not only possible but certain.

With ever-increasing brutality and destruction, modern warfare, if unchecked, would ultimately crush all civilization. We still have a choice between the alternatives: The continuation of international chaos, or the establishment of a world organization for the enforcement of peace.

As we are about to undertake our heavy duties, we beseech Almighty God to guide us in building a permanent monument to those who gave their lives that this moment might come.

May He lead our steps in His own righteous path of peace.

The following is an excerpt from a history of the conference that was posted on the State Department's History.7


State Department History on the Founding of the UN

The San Francisco Conference, formally known as the United Nations Conference on International Organization, opened on April 25, 1945, with delegations from fifty countries present.  The U.S. delegation to San Francisco included Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., former Secretary of State Cordell Hull, and Senators Tom Connally (D-Texas) and Arthur Vandenberg (R-Michigan), as well as other Congressional and public representatives...

 At San Francisco, the delegates reviewed and often rewrote the text agreed to at Dumbarton Oaks.  The delegations negotiated a role for regional organizations under the United Nations umbrella and outlined the powers of the office of Secretary General, including the authority to refer conflicts to the Security Council.  Conference participants also considered a proposal for compulsory jurisdiction for a World Court, but Stettinius recognized such an outcome could imperil Senate ratification.  The delegates then agreed that each state should make its own determination about World Court membership.  The conference did approve the creation of an Economic and Social Council and a Trusteeship Council to assist in the process of decolonization, and agreed that these councils would have rotating geographic representation.  The United Nations Charter also gave the United Nations broader jurisdiction over issues that were “essentially within” the domestic jurisdiction of states, such as human rights, than the League of Nations had, and broadened its scope on economic and technological issues.

Oral History given by J. Wesley Adams

At the Truman Library website there is a transcript of an Oral History given by J. Wesley Adams8.  Adams was a Technical Advisor to the U.S. Delegation at United Nations Conference on International Organization, 1945.    The following are excerpts from that transcript (emphasis added):

MCKINZIE: The issue that you mentioned that as an overriding issue at the Conference -- namely, the veto -- was originally insisted upon by the United States as a means of making the Senate feel that the United States would not be dragooned into any kind of international action. The veto -- even though the Soviet used it most the first years -- was nonetheless a necessary thing for the United States.

ADAMS: I was never personally involved in discussions within the American Government on this particular point and obviously it was decided at the Presidential level. But I always assumed that the United States would itself have insisted upon the veto, and of course agreement on the veto was reached at the Yalta Conference. The feeling, I think, at the San Francisco Conference was that this system was not going to work unless the big powers agreed...  So, the veto was built on this assumption that the two powers must agree. Three other countries also had the veto but militarily they were very weak, had been practically prostrated by the war (the British, and the French, and China). What we are really talking about was the United States and Soviet Union.

...You had a feeling in the Department at that time that the shots were being called by Edward Stettinius? Or was it more of a committee operation? Did you think Stettinius was strong?

ADAMS: No. I had the feeling that Mr. Stettinius was taking his directions from the White House, and relying heavily on bureaucratic advice. Mr. Stettinius, of course, came into this picture very late in the game. Cordell Hull had been Secretary right up to about the time of the Conference. Hull had been at Dumbarton Oaks the fall before. I would say that below the President it was a committee operation. Yes. Because there were very strong advisers to the U. S. delegation, as I mentioned, the Senators and the Congressmen, the top people in the State Department, Defense Department, Treasury, and Mr. Stettinius. I think they worked as a team.

MCKINZIE: When you came back to Washington after the San Francisco Conference, did you immediately start work then on other international conferences?

ADAMS: Yes. The whole inter-departmental staff then got to work on preparing the actual U. S. participation in the United Nations itself.  In the following winter the first meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations met in London. Our Bureau then became the Office of United Nations Affairs, our job being to backstop the U. S. delegation to various U. N. bodies and help prepare the U. S. position on various issues.

ADAMS: To change the subject, I would mention the prominence or notoriety subsequently achieved by members of the Office of International Security Affairs in which I worked at that time. It was quite remarkable. In charge of the whole U.N. office in State was Alger Hiss, who had been the Secretary General of the United Nations Conference and was subsequently to be a key figure in the McCarthy era, the pumpkin papers and Whittaker Chambers. Our immediate chief was Joseph Johnson who was later to become head of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.



The United Nations Charter was signed on June 26, 1945.9

Original organization: 

Source: The World Charter and the Road to Peace
Author: Stuart Chevalier
1946, The Ward Ritchie Press, Los Angeles

Additional Reading:

Roosevelt's Report to Congress on the Crimea Conference

Article - New York Times, March 5, 1945, State Department Announcement of the Proposed Voting Procedures in the International Security Organization

Mobilizing Public Support for the United Nations by Lukas Haynes

Yale Law School Lillian Goldman Law Library, The Avalon Project, World War II Documents




1 The Legacy of Cordell Hull,  http://www.cordellhullmuseum.com/history.html
2  University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill and Center for Public Domain, IBIBLIO - Public Library and Digital, Pamphlet No. 4, Pillars of Peace, Army Information School, January 19410February 1946, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security, October 7, 1944, Archive http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1944/441007a.html
3 Nobel Prize Organization, online information center, Cordell Hull Biography, The Nobel Peace Prize 1945, http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1945/hull-bio.html
4 Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, The Dumbarton Oaks Conversations, http://www.doaks.org/about/the_dumbarton_oaks_conversations.html

5 Avalon Project, Yale Law School, Yalta Agreement, February 1945,    http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/yalta.asp
6 University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill and Center for Public Domain, IBIBLIO - Public Library and Digital, President Truman's Address to opening session of United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, April 25, 1945,   http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1945/450425a.html
7 U.S. State Department History, Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, The United States and the Founding of the United Nations, originally published on the State Department website; captured from the Internet Archive when it couldn't be found again. http://www.thetechnocratictyranny.com/documents/state_dept_history_founding_of_UN.pdf
8 Harry S. Truman Library & Museum website, Oral History Interview with J. Wesley Adams, December 18, 1972, http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/adamsjw.htm
9 United Nations History - Milestones, http://www.un.org/en/aboutun/history/1941-1950.shtml